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When one examines the pertinent principles in each argument which, in combination with dilemmas, generates an inconsistency, there is little doubt that those in the first argument have a greater claim to being conceptually true than those in the second.
One who recognizes the salience of the first argument is Brink , section V. But notice that the first argument shows that if there are genuine dilemmas, then either PC or PD must be relinquished.
Even most supporters of dilemmas acknowledge that PC is quite basic.
Lemmon, for example, notes that if PC does not hold in a system of deontic logic, then all that remains are truisms and paradoxes Lemmon , p. There has been much debate about PD—in particular, questions generated by the Good Samaritan paradox—but still it seems basic. So those who want to argue against dilemmas purely on conceptual grounds are better off focusing on the first of the two arguments above.
But foes of dilemmas need not say this. Even if they believe that a conceptual argument against dilemmas can be made by appealing to PC and PD, they have several options regarding the second argument. Defenders of dilemmas need not deny all of the pertinent principles. If one thinks that each of the principles at least has some initial plausibility, then one will be inclined to retain as many as possible.
A common response to the first argument is to deny PD. A more complicated response is to grant that the crucial deontic principles hold, but only in ideal worlds. In the real world, they have heuristic value, bidding agents in conflict cases to look for permissible options, though none may exist Holbo , especially sections 15— Friends and foes of dilemmas have a burden to bear in responding to the two arguments above.
For there is at least a prima facie plausibility to the claim that there are moral dilemmas and to the claim that the relevant principles in the two arguments are true. Thus each side must at least give reasons for denying the pertinent claims in question. Opponents of dilemmas must say something in response to the positive arguments that are given for the reality of such conflicts.
One reason in support of dilemmas, as noted above, is simply pointing to examples. First, any answer given to the question is likely to be controversial, certainly not always convincing. And second, this is a game that will never end; example after example can be produced. The more appropriate response on the part of foes of dilemmas is to deny that they need to answer the question.
Examples as such cannot establish the reality of dilemmas. Surely most will acknowledge that there are situations in which an agent does not know what he ought to do. This may be because of factual uncertainty, uncertainty about the consequences, uncertainty about what principles apply, or a host of other things.
So for any given case, the mere fact that one does not know which of two or more conflicting obligations prevails does not show that none does.
Another reason in support of dilemmas to which opponents must respond is the point about symmetry. As the cases from Plato and Sartre show, moral rules can conflict. But opponents of dilemmas can argue that in such cases one rule overrides the other. Most will grant this in the Platonic case, and opponents of dilemmas will try to extend this point to all cases. But the hardest case for opponents is the symmetrical one, where the same precept generates the conflicting requirements.
It makes no sense to say that a rule or principle overrides itself.
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So what do opponents of dilemmas say here? They are apt to argue that the pertinent, all-things-considered requirement in such a case is disjunctive: Sophie should act to save one or the other of her children, since that is the best that she can do for example, Zimmerman , Chapter 7. Such a move need not be ad hoc, since in many cases it is quite natural. If an agent can afford to make a meaningful contribution to only one charity, the fact that there are several worthwhile candidates does not prompt many to say that the agent will fail morally no matter what he does.
Nearly all of us think that he should give to one or the other of the worthy candidates. Similarly, if two people are drowning and an agent is situated so that she can save either of the two but only one, few say that she is doing wrong no matter which person she saves.
Positing a disjunctive requirement in these cases seems perfectly natural, and so such a move is available to opponents of dilemmas as a response to symmetrical cases.
Supporters of dilemmas have a burden to bear too. They need to cast doubt on the adequacy of the pertinent principles in the two arguments that generate inconsistencies. And most importantly, they need to provide independent reasons for doubting whichever of the principles they reject. If they have no reason other than cases of putative dilemmas for denying the principles in question, then we have a mere standoff.
Among supporters of dilemmas, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong Sinnott-Armstrong , Chapters 4 and 5 has gone to the greatest lengths to provide independent reasons for questioning some of the relevant principles.
Moral Residue and Dilemmas One well-known argument for the reality of moral dilemmas has not been discussed yet. Suppose that he joins the Free French forces. It is likely that he will experience remorse or guilt for having abandoned his mother. And not only will he experience these emotions, this moral residue, but it is appropriate that he does. Yet, had he stayed with his mother and not joined the Free French forces, he also would have appropriately experienced remorse or guilt.
But either remorse or guilt is appropriate only if the agent properly believes that he has done something wrong or failed to do something that he was all-things-considered required to do. Since no matter what the agent does he will appropriately experience remorse or guilt, then no matter what he does he will have done something wrong.
Thus, the agent faces a genuine moral dilemma. The best known proponents of arguments for dilemmas that appeal to moral residue are Williams and Marcus ; for a more recent contribution, see Tessman , especially Chapter 2. No matter which of her children Sophie saves, she will experience enormous guilt for the consequences of that choice. Indeed, if Sophie did not experience such guilt, we would think that there was something morally wrong with her. In these cases, proponents of the argument for dilemmas from moral residue must claim that four things are true: 1 when the agents acts, she experiences remorse or guilt; 2 that she experiences these emotions is appropriate and called for; 3 had the agent acted on the other of the conflicting requirements, she would also have experienced remorse or guilt; and 4 in the latter case these emotions would have been equally appropriate and called for McConnell , pp.
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In these situations, then, remorse or guilt will be appropriate no matter what the agent does and these emotions are appropriate only when the agent has done something wrong.
Therefore, these situations are genuinely dilemmatic and moral failure is inevitable for agents who face them.
There is much to say about the moral emotions and situations of moral conflict; the positions are varied and intricate. Without pretending to resolve all of the issues here, it will be pointed out that opponents of dilemmas have raised two different objections to the argument from moral residue.
The first objection, in effect, suggests that the argument is question-begging McConnell and Conee ; the second objection challenges the assumption that remorse and guilt are appropriate only when the agent has done wrong.
But the negative moral emotions are not limited to remorse and guilt.
Among these other emotions, consider regret. An agent can appropriately experience regret even when she does not believe that she has done something wrong.
For example, a parent may appropriately regret that she must punish her child even though she correctly believes that the punishment is deserved. Regret can even be appropriate when a person has no causal connection at all with the bad state of affairs. Not only is it appropriate that I experience regret in these cases, but I would probably be regarded as morally lacking if I did not. For accounts of moral remainders as they relate specifically to Kantianism and virtue ethics, see, respectively, Hill , — and Hursthouse , 44—48 and 68— With remorse or guilt, at least two components are present: the experiential component, namely, the negative feeling that the agent has; and the cognitive component, namely, the belief that the agent has done something wrong and takes responsibility for it.
Although this same cognitive component is not part of regret, the negative feeling is. And the experiential component alone cannot serve as a gauge to distinguish regret from remorse, for regret can range from mild to intense, and so can remorse. In part, what distinguishes the two is the cognitive component. No doubt, it is appropriate for him to experience some negative feeling.
To say, however, that it is remorse that is called for is to assume that the agent appropriately believes that he has done something wrong.
Opponents of dilemmas can say that one of the requirements overrides the other, or that the agent faces a disjunctive requirement, and that regret is appropriate because even when he does what he ought to do, some bad will ensue. Either side, then, can account for the appropriateness of some negative moral emotion. To get more specific, however, requires more than is warranted by the present argument. This appeal to moral residue, then, does not by itself establish the reality of moral dilemmas.
Matters are even more complicated, though, as the second objection to the argument from moral residue shows. The residues contemplated by proponents of the argument are diverse, ranging from guilt or remorse to a belief that the agent ought to apologize or compensate persons who were negatively impacted by the fact that he did not satisfy one of the conflicting obligations.
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The argument assumes that experiencing remorse or guilt or believing that one ought to apologize or compensate another are appropriate responses only if the agent believes that he has done something wrong. But this assumption is debatable, for multiple reasons.
First, even when one obligation clearly overrides another in a conflict case, it is often appropriate to apologize to or to explain oneself to any disadvantaged parties. Ross provides such a case , 28 : one who breaks a relatively trivial promise in order to assist someone in need should in some way make it up to the promisee.
Even though the agent did no wrong, the additional actions promote important moral values McConnell , 42— Second, as Simon Blackburn argues, compensation or its like may be called for even when there was no moral conflict at all Blackburn , — If a coach rightly selected Agnes for the team rather than Belinda, she still is likely to talk to Belinda, encourage her efforts, and offer tips for improving.
Third, the consequences of what one has done may be so horrible as to make guilt inevitable. Consider the case of a middle-aged man, Bill, and a seven-year-old boy, Johnny. It is set in a midwestern village on a snowy December day.
Johnny and several of his friends are riding their sleds down a narrow, seldom used street, one that intersects with a busier, although still not heavily traveled, street. Johnny, in his enthusiasm for sledding, is not being very careful. During his final ride he skidded under an automobile passing through the intersection and was killed instantly.
The car was driven by Bill. Bill was driving safely, had the right of way, and was not exceeding the speed limit. Moreover, given the physical arrangement, it would have been impossible for Bill to have seen Johnny coming.
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Yet Bill experienced what can best be described as remorse or guilt about his role in this horrible event McConnell , Bill did nothing wrong. Certainly Bill does not deserve to feel guilt Dahl , 95— A friend might even recommend that Bill seek therapy. But this is not all there is to say. To see this, imagine that Bill had had a very different response. It is a terrible thing. But it certainly was not my fault. When human beings have caused great harm, it is natural for them to wonder if they are at fault, even if to outsiders it is obvious that they bear no moral responsibility for the damage.
Human beings are not so finely tuned emotionally that when they have been causally responsible for harm, they can easily turn guilt on or off depending on their degree of moral responsibility.
See Zimmerman , — Work in moral psychology can help to explain why self-directed moral emotions like guilt or remorse are natural when an agent has acted contrary to a moral norm, whether justifiably or not. Many moral psychologists describe dual processes in humans for arriving at moral judgments see, for example, Greene , especially Chapters 4—5, and Haidt , especially Chapter 2. Moral emotions are likely the product of evolution, reinforcing conduct that promotes social harmony and disapproving actions that thwart that end.
So both supporters and opponents of moral dilemmas can give an account of why agents who face moral conflicts appropriately experience negative moral emotions. But there is a complex array of issues concerning the relationship between ethical conflicts and moral emotions, and only book-length discussions can do them justice.Check yours now. Many moral psychologists describe dual processes in humans for arriving at moral judgments see, for example, Greene , especially Chapters 4—5, and Haidt , especially Chapter 2.
Paper 8. Have done his graduation from IIT-Kanpur. Paper 3.
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