This publication is available in Web form. 1 and also as a PDF document. 2. Please forward Python A fine general-purpose programming language. This document is a reference guide, not a tutorial. If you are. LearningProgrammingwithPython. Operator Precedence and Associativity. .. kinconsdegrabook.ga Release Date June 18, Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has efficient high-level data structures and a.
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Introduction to Python. Heavily based on presentations by. Matt Huenerfauth ( Penn State). Guido van Rossum (Google). Richard P. Muller. gives enough understanding on Python programming language. Audience. This tutorial is designed for software programmers who need to learn Python. This tutorial can also be used to learn Python programming language from scratch. Prerequisites in this tutorial, please notify us at [email protected] com.
To help you with the big task of finding the best book for you, I have added a few indicators whether the book is interesting for you or not.
These are my top picks of free Python books — get all of them and store them on your PC! I have sorted them in alphabetical order. Slicing is one of the most basic skills of a Python developer. This is THE most comprehensive book on slicing in existence. Another great book about computer games from Al Sweigart.
The book specifically addresses kids but is also interesting for adults who like gaming. This book is one of the most comprehensive Python books I have ever seen.
Sometimes this can be a bit dry — but the author does a great work in making it interesting for the reader. This is a very popular book that asks you to perform programming exercises in your terminal. By putting in the actual effort and typing in all the little commands , you learn more thoroughly at the cost of a larger time investment. GetApplication 1. Type the following code into the script file: The following results should be seen in the output win- dow: Now we will have a look at what else is inside the Python command object.
Whenever you open a Python command object, you will see a window with a number of tabs: We will go through each tab and the functions that are available. Figure 2. This can be any object, e. Inside the script, the object can be used like a variable by calling the name defined here. One reason to employ a remote script is if you have multiple study cases using the same script code, but different input parameters.
If you were to use a remote script, then mod- ifying the master script will affect all the Python objects that refer to it. If you had locally defined scripts, then you would need to change the code in every single local Python object individually.
You can access these parame- ters as if they were from any other type of object, i. The Description and Version tabs are informational tabs for script descriptions and revision information.
The Python command object may contain objects or references to other objects available in the PowerFactory database. These can be accessed by clicking on the Contents button. An example showing the possible contents of a Python command object is shown in Figure 2. PrintPlain line.
PrintPlain Line. PrintPlain Lines. Object name.
A tooltip will appear with the corresponding variable name. For example, hovering over the power factor field in the static generator element yields the variable name: Figure 3. The Python command object can contain other objects within it.
To access the contents of a Python object, click on the smarksContents button of the Python command dialogue: ComPython internal template object You can use an internal object inside the Python command object as a template for the object type you want to create. To create the object, you can use the AddCopy object name command.
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In order to use this command, you must first locate the folder or object that you want to copy the template into. Python Command Object ComPython Dialogue - External Object To use this area, simply double-click on the object field and select an object you would like to reference from anywhere in the project hierarchy.
This is the name that the object will be called inside the Python script. Once the external template object has been selected, you can use the AddCopy object name command to create a new object in the database.
With template objects, you can set default parameters and even add child objects inside the template.
The CreateObject class name, object name function is used to create new objects. Like the previous two methods, you must first locate the folder or object that you want to create the object in. PrintPlain oFold Copy the template short circuit event into the events folder oFold. This function will return an object with a reference to the top level of project folders, e. The function returns a list of objects that meet the criteria in the string.
Some examples: This function is essentially a shortcut to accessing objects inside a study case, which is used to navigate to the study case project folder, selecting a study case and then selecting an object. The other advantage of GetFromStudyCase is that if the object does not exist inside the study case, the function will create it. Note however that this function only works with the active study case.
The code snippet below gets the graphics board object from the active study case. PrintPlain oDesk 3. In order to access a study case, you must first access the study case folder. The code snippet below does the following: PrintPlain aCase app. PrintPlain aCase. Activate Note that if there are subfolders within the study case folder, then further processing needs to be done to access the study case objects within these subfolders.
For more information please refer to Navigating Project Folders in section 3. The Execute object function can then be used to execute the calculation. The following list of calculation command objects are available: Execute 3. To get the value of these results you can use GetAttribute string method. Refer to the section 5 for more information. Note that by default, PowerFactory prints 6 decimal places for floating point variables. For example, for 3 decimal places app.
PrintError string app. PrintWarn string app.
SetVipage to create a new virtual instrument with the function GetVI string name, string class, int create. The class of the VI is the type of VI that you want to create. VisPlot by default. The classes for virtual instruments are shown below: Using the VI object, use the AddVars function to add variables and objects to the plot.
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The function AddVars can be used in one of two ways: O8 Here we want to add the variable V to objects O1 to O8 i. V8 Alternatively, we can add multiple variables V1 to V8 to a single object O i. For example, suppose you want to get the list of transformers connected to a bus, or you want to follow a branch circuit through lines and transformers to its end point. PowerFactory has a number of python functions that can help in this task.
Some of the useful topological search functions: Example b: GetConnectedElms By default, the options are set to 0,0,0. Important Node: Figure 4. This is to avoid returning the internal nodes of a subsection, and instead returning the main busbar.
Returns NULL if the cubicle does not exist. Returns string.
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If no bus is found, then null is returned. Example c: GetAll Without setting any of the options, the above snippet is equivalent to calling oCub. GetAll 1,0 , i. For more information please refer to standard Python literature e. SetDesktop , so a relevant graphics board object needs to be retrieved before export- ing to a WMF.Figure 7. ElmRes object as contents of Python Script Once it has been dragged or created into the script, the Results file can be called inside the Python script.
By putting in the actual effort and typing in all the little commands , you learn more thoroughly at the cost of a larger time investment. You'll need to give it some information about your internet connection, although most of the time you can just accept the defaults and keep going.
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First, find the template title block and add it as an external object to the Python command object. One reason to employ a remote script is if you have multiple study cases using the same script code, but different input parameters. If that works, lets move on to writing a program into a file.